Parents Interacting With Infants (PIWI)
Parents Interacting With Infants (PIWI) is an evidenced based set of practices based on beliefs (a "philosophy") about families, children, and helping relationships. The objectives of PIWI are to increase confidence, competence and positive relationships for parents and children ages 0-2. It does so by keeping the parent-child relationship at the center and by supporting responsive, respectful parent-child interactions.
The primary focus of PIWI is parent-child groups but it may be used in home visitation and other settings. PIWI has been successfully used in community based Head Start, early intervention and other settings with a diverse range of parents and children. PIWI is not a curriculum but PIWI groups do follow a specified schedule which includes an opening, a focal topic for parent child interaction and observation, a summing up and home activity.
Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children ages 2 to 7 that places emphasis on improving the quality of the parent-child relationship and changing parent-child interaction patterns. One primary use is to treat clinically significant disruptive behaviors.
In PCIT, parents are taught specific skills to establish a nurturing and secure relationship with their child while increasing their child's prosocial behavior and decreasing negative behavior. This treatment focuses on two basic interactions: Child Directed Interaction (CDI) is similar to intentional play in that parents engage their child in a play situation with the goal of strengthening the parent-child relationship; Parent Directed Interaction (PDI) resembles clinical behavior therapy in that parents learn to use specific behavior management techniques as they play with their child.
PCIT has several unique features which support interaction between parents and children: The therapist does not interact directly with the child and are not in the room for most sessions. Instead, two-way mirrors or cameras and ear pieces provide feedback and suggestions to parents while they are interacting with their child.
The average number of sessions is 14, but varies from 10 to 20 sessions. Treatment continues until the parent masters the interaction skills to pre-set criteria and the child's behavior has improved to within normal limits.
PCIT became a Medicaid covered service on April 15, 2013.